Ancient Romans


http://architecture.knoji.com/17-interesting-facts-about-the-colosseum/

Colosseum

The Colosseum was original name was Flavian Amphitheater, this was simply the most remarkable thing in Rome. The making of the Flavian Amphitheater or better known as the Colosseum was started in 72 CE and finished in 80 CE. The Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and these gladiators would be put into a huge ring with a couple of lions and they would fight for their lives. In 107 CE the emperor Trajan killed 11 000 animals and 10 000 gladiators within 123 days.

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http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_baths.htm

Romans baths

Roman houses water supplied pipes. These pipes were taxed according to their size, so many houses had just a basic supply and could not bath at their own houses Therefore for people went to the local baths. But the local baths were a good gathering, this is where people could talk around have a good conversation or they could sit there and relax. There was more then one kind of bath there no matter what you were in the mood for there was cold baths,warm baths and hot baths. It was very cheap to use a Roman bath after paying his entrance fee, would strip naked and hand his clothes to an attendant. He could then do some exercising to work up a sweat before moving into the caldarium which was like a modern sauna. They went into the sauna to get rid of the body's dirt. Finally, he could use the main pool for a swim or to socialize. Bathing was very important to the ancient Romans as it served many functions.

cold warm hot
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sauna
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http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_roads.htm

Ancient Roman roads

The Romans needed roads to move their troops around quickly,Poor roads would not help poor roads would make then get around slower. Romans are famous for their straight,well built and the roads lasted for centuries. Both horse driven carts and ridden horses were used for fast delivery to distant places. For the first time in history it was possible to receive a letter in Rome, from as far away place, in as little as a few days. While having obvious advantages for trade, once again, the roads were never a primary source of business Most trade and transportation occurring on roads was limited to short routes.


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http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/fall_of_ancient_rome.htm

The Fall of Rome

The fall of Ancient Rome started from about AD 190. TheRoman empire was attacked by tribes such as the Goths and the Vandals. Civil wars in parts of the empire weakened the rule of Rome and respect for Roman law close a result. The reason why the Goths tried to attack the Roman Empire is to experience better climate to assist there farming, this turned into conflict with the Roman Empire. With threats from tribes in northern Europe, financial problems in Rome itself and a civilian population becoming more and more discontented, Rome couldn’t afford major issues. The Ostrogoth attacked the western empire via the eastern empire. The Huns, a fierce tribe from Asia, attacked the western empire. The Franks, Visigoths,and Burgundian all made large inroads into the western empire. The days of the Roman Army had passed, the Romans were forced into making deals with the tribes. The Vandals and Visigoths were allowed to live in the Roman Empires long as they gave a promise to protect the Roman empire from the Huns.


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http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_army.htm

Ancient Roman Army

The Roman Army was very important in explaining the success of the Romans and the growth of the Roman Empire. The Roman Army, at the best of its power, defeat what we now call England/Wales, Spain, France, most of Germany, the northern coast of Africa, the Middle East and Greece. The Roman Army is known by historians as an almighty effective fighting machine. Its success also led to its downfall. The lowest level of soldier in the Roman Army was the legionnaire. Between 5000 and 6000 legionaries made up a legion that was commanded by a legatus. Legionnaires were trained to fight in a disciplined way. A whole legion could be punished for getting beat to fight while in battle, even if the Romans did win the battle. Training was brutal and tough but it paid off enormously for the Romans.This is the Roman formation used while in battle

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Trade
Trade was vital to ancient. The empire cost a vast sum of money to run and trade brought in much of that money. The population of the city of Rome was one million and such a large population required all things brought back from trade. The Roman Empire was mixed up with trade routes. The Romans imported a whole variety of materials: beef, corn, glassware, iron, lead, leather, marble, olive oil, perfumes, purple dye, silk, silver, spices, timber, tin and wine. The main trading partners were in Spain, France, the Middle East and North Africa. The most important port was Ostia as it was the nearest major port to Rome itself. Many ships travelled between Ostia and the major North African city of Carthage. The Romans did what they could to make sea journeys safe - lighthouses were built as were safe harbors and docks. The Roman Navy did what it could to make the Mediterranean Sea safe from pirates.


__http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/ancient_rome_and_trade.htm__
Roman bakery
Roman bakery

War with Carthage (first Punic war)

A few years after the defeat of Pyrrhus, the Romans decided to declare war after an incident in Messana. This town had been occupied by former Syracusan mercenaries, called the Mamertines. In 265, the tyrant of Syracuse, Hiero II, defeated them and laid siege to the city. Immediately, the Mamertines asked help from Carthage, which gladly intervened and sent its admiral Hannibal to defend and garrison Messana. From now on, the Carthaginians controlled the Strait. However, occupation was not the help the Mamertines had been hoping for. Rome received a call for help too, and decided to intervene, running the risk of full-scale Carthaginian intervention. But Rome could not ignore the request: from Messana, the Carthaginians threatened the Greek towns of southern Italy's, Rome's new allies. War was inevitable.

In 264, one of the Roman consuls, Appius Claudius, Caudex invaded Sicily with two legions and captured Messana: the First Punic War had broken out. Next summer, the Romans laid siege to Acragas and captured this Carthaginian base (early 261), which had been defended by the same Hannibal who had garrisoned Messana. However, after these successes, the Roman war machine came to a standstill. The Carthaginians refused to accept Roman control of the Strait, and the Romans understood that they had to conquer the entire island. This meant that they had to gain naval superiority - something that would be very difficult, because the Romans were no sailors.

It was a conflict between an elephant and a whale, which could go on forever. However, the Romans had a secret weapon, called Corvus. This was a movable bridge with a metal prong that could be dropped onto the deck of a Carthaginian ship. Once the two ships were tied to each other, the naval battle had changed into a land battle. In other words, the Romans used their ships as platforms for fighting. In 260, at Mylae, their consul Gaius Duillius defeated Admiral Hannibal, and won Rome's first naval victory ever.




http://www.livius.org/cao-caz/carthage/carthage.html
Hannibal against the roman army
Hannibal against the roman army

Julius Caesar assassinated
By the time of Caesar, Rome had a long-established republican government headed by two consuls with joint powers. Praetors were one step below consuls in the power chain and handled judicial matters. A body of citizens forming the Senate proposed legislation, which general people's assemblies then approved by vote. A special temporary office that of dictator was established for use only during times of extreme civil unrest. The Romans had no love for kings. According to legend, they expelled their last one in 509 B.C. While Caesar had made pointed and public displays of turning down offers of kingship, he showed no reluctance to accept the office of "dictator for life" in February 44 B.C. According to Osgood, this may have sealed his fate in the minds of his enemies. It is unclear if Caesar was aware of the plot to kill him on March 15 in 44 B.C. But Caesar was not oblivious to the mounting danger of a betrayal, noted Charles McNelis, an assistant professor of classics and Osgood's colleague at Georgetown University. The plot conspirators, who termed themselves "the liberators," had to move fast. "Caesar had plans to leave Rome on March 18th for a military campaign in Parthia, the region around modern-day Iraq. So the conspirators did not have much time," McNelis said. Whether or not Caesar was a true tyrant is debated still today. However, Marcus Brutus, who helped come up with the attack, the threat Caesar posed to the republican system was clear. In the end, the legacy of power Caesar established lived on through Octavian his heir Octavian, who later became Rome's first emperor, also known as Imperator Caesar Augustus. The Ides of March remained a reminder to future rulers, according to McNelis. "Octavian seems to have been aware of the problems of presenting himself as Caesar had. The Ides became a lesson in political self-presentation," he said.


__http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/03/0311_040311_idesmarch_2.html__
Julius Caeser being betrayed by his assistants
Julius Caeser being betrayed by his assistants

Crucifixion of Jesus
Some of the Jewish leaders hated Jesus because he condemned their sins. They did not want to believe the truth he spoke, as he urged them to stop and turn to God. They became jealous of the great crowds that followed him and believed him, and finally decided to get rid of him by killing him. The Jews didn’t have the authority to have a man killed they had to go to Pilate a roman governor. Once they pressured Pilate enough he finally agreed to have Jesus crucified. The place where they killed prisoners was outside the city of Jerusalem on a small hill called Golgotha. They laid the cross on the ground while they nailed his hands and feet to it with spikes. The entire weight of the body tore at the spikes, and the pain was imaginable. It lasted for a few hours, and could even last for a few days. Since Jesus had been whipped before they took him to be crucified, he was already weak from loss of blood. Even with all the pain, Jesus thought of others rather than himself. His first words from the cross were, "Father, forgive them for they know not what they do". Even though he could have threatened to punish them eternally when they faced him in judgment, he didn’t. His final words expressed his complete surrender to the will of God as He said, "It is finished; Father into Thy hands I commend my spirit". He then bowed His head and died.


__http://www.bible.ca/d-crucifixion-of-Jesus.htm__
__http://www.history-timelines.org.uk/places-timelines/03-ancient-rome-timeline.htm__

Jesus on the cross
Jesus on the cross

Christianity is declared the sole religion of the Roman Empire by Theodosius I
The final death knell of the Pagan faith came only a generation later, under the rule of Theodosius. A Christian, and recognizing the amazing growth of a young faith, Theodosius and his western counterpart Gratian, recognized Christianity as the official religion of the Empire in 380 AD. Theodosius refused the title of Pontifex Maximus (head priest) and it was instead on the Catholic Pope in Rome. In 390 AD, a massacre ordered by the Emperor of 7,000 people who revolted in Thessalonica resulted in his own 8 month penance. By the beginning of the 5th century, after just 400 years, the Church grew from a mystery cult into a power on nearly equal terms with the Roman Emperor himself. Though there would still be much work to be done, especially among German tribes and in places such as Britain, Christianity would slowly come to dominate the entire western world.


__http://www.unrv.com/culture/christianity.php__
Theodosius preaching to a crowd
Theodosius preaching to a crowd



Education:
The rich people of Rome had a great education. They were often schooled and were taught by their own private tutor, at home they would go to schools. The schools were boys only. All the learning was based from fear, The boys would be beaten for any offence. They did this because they figured if children fear getting the wrong answer they will get it correct. If a student were to get lots of answers wrong they would be held down and beaten with a leather strap. If you were poor chances are you would be able to read and write , but you would not be able to have your own tutor or be able to go to school. I think that it would be very interesting to go back in time and view how people would be taught and what they would learn about. I would also like to see how the children felt about what they were being, if they liked it or not, and if what they were taught the way they were if that would work or if they would be too scared to learn well.


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Slaves:
Some emperors would have as many as 20,000 slaves, 25% of the people in Rome were slaves, some rich men even had as many as 500 slaves to their disposal. A slave would be bought in a market place by a rich man. When the slave was bought they were a slave for life, they could get freedom but there owner would have to give it to them. A slave could buy their freedom, the only way to do this is pay your owner the cost of what you cost him to buy. Often a slave would kill their child because the slaves child would also become a slave and the parent wouldn't want that life for their child. The most Important job for a slave was to be a cook. A slaves day started when the sun came up and stopped at dark they work long hard days . But the master d owner did believe that if the slave was treated well they would work better and harder. i think it would be a good thing to observe how a slaves life went and what they thought of it, It would also be beneficial to see what the owner of the slaves thought of them and how they worked.


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Hadrians wall:
Hadrians wall was six meters high and three meters wide, It held about twenty soldiers. Turrets guarded were every 500 meters, it had a hospital, granary, barracks, workshop and washroom/toilets. I think it would be interesting to learn the way they would construct something like this. To hear what the architects thought about it and what something like this would cost. I would also like to hear what they took into account when they added stuff for warfare, what their strategy was in making turrets, archer stations etc. When it was done i would like to hear what the people that lived inside it thought of it. If they thought it was nice, good, bad. I would like to know if they felt safe inside of it and if they thought they would have a good chance of winning a battle from inside it.


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Engineering:
The Romans put a great deal of effort into engineering. roads, theatres, baths or Hadrian's Wall. Roman engineering was very important even in our life it helped us to build our buildings. The romans built so many amazing things in their time and i thing if we could go back in time and see how they build stuff, how they decide what to build and how to do it. I think it would be awesome to observe how they lifted Hugh stones and stuff without modern day cranes it would be very difficult for them to do stuff. I think it might even make us better at building stuff just by gathering the techniques of the people back then, because it would be much harder to build such amazing buildings without the modern tools that we use every day today.


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Sources:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome
http://library.thinkquest.org/J002606/AncientRome.html
http://atschool.eduweb.co.uk/nettsch/time/rlife.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Ancient_Rome
http://www.roman-colosseum.info/roman-architecture/hadrians-wall.htm http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/430



The roman kingdom was traditionally founded during the iron age in the year 753BC but this knowledge is not completely confirmed because little is known about the roman kingdom because most of the artefacts and written history has been lost or destroyed, but all of what we know about the roman kingdom was written during the time of the republic and the empire which is mainly based on legend.

The first settlements of Rome took place between The Palatine Hills and the river Tiber where there was a natural Ford where they could cross the river. Also this area was there was very fertile ground to farm.
The City of Rome
If Romans lived in cities throughout the empire, then their greatest city, naturally, was the city of Rome itself.
Had it originally started as a small settlement on the Palatine Hill it had grown into the greatest city of the ancient world?
Rulers of the Republic
Rome was a realm of quasi kings; magistrates and senators. The senate was made up of former magistrates, was no doubt an imposing sight to behold, much like the court of monarchy.

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http://www.roman-empire.net/army/army.html

Women: An average Roman women left the house only to go shopping, take baths, or if she wanted, to go visit her friends and relatives. Dancing and singing were thought to be unsuitable in rome.
Children: the first eight days of a baby’s life there was various religion ceremonies. The day of naming was actually called dies Lustrous (day of purification) for the ceremony performed that day.
The training of children was conducted by the parents, with emphases on moral, rather than intellectual development.
Until the age of seven, boys and girls were tough by their mother speak Latin correctly, and do elementary reading. Writing and arithmetic. A boy was trained by his father. If his father was a farmer he learnt to plow, plant, and reap. The father trains his son how to use weapons in military exercise, as well as riding, swimming and wrestling.

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http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women%20and%20marriage%20in%20ancient%20rome.htm
















http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romel/html/romechildren.html
http://library.thinkquest.org/26602/society.htm
Slaves: People who were frequently captured from war, and brought back to Rome to be sold, abandoned children were also thought to be slaves. The law also states that fathers could sell older children if they were in need of money.
http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/roman_slaves.htm



An early Roman diet consisted of:
•meat
•wild fruits
•nuts
Early fruits were:
•apples
•pears
•plums
•quinces
Because they were abundant and cheap
New fruits introduced later were:
•apricots
•peaches
•pomegranates
•cherries
These fruits were introduced by Lucullus at Cerasus at Pontus


http://www.classicsunveiled.com/romel/html/romefood.html



Roman Empire 264 B.C Roman Empire 164 B.C Roman Empire 31 B.C Roman Empire 150 A.D