MAYAN CIVILIZATION RESEARCH
Pink = Chilombo Mwela
Green = Rizza Enriquez
Purple = Dianne Aluben
Agricultural Foundation of Mesoamerica
  • They consider corn as “god’s holy sunbeams”
  • corn was grown in the Maya area by 2000 B.C.
  • they believe that corn-like all plants- has inner life and soul
  • during earthquakes, they go out to the farm to comfort the disturbed plants.
  • the cultivation, harvest, and consumption of corn has been a sacred duty.
  • jaguars are kings of the forest, served as “co-essences”
  • they have howler monkey twins.
  • on rituals, snakes often appear

The Mayan Ball Game
http://library.thinkquest.org/J0112511/ballgame.htm
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http://www.google.ca/imgres?um=1&hl=en&sa=N&biw=1016&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=DJuyi7y1jXKO1M:&imgrefurl=http://mzhou2.wordpress.com/2012/04/03/core-friday-2-mayan-ball-game/&docid=0xj17UXdSWwrRM&imgurl=https://mzhou2.files.wordpress.com/2012/04/mayanball.jpg&w=350&h=267&ei=OYWpT7m4A4WK6QGwp7CEBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=531&vpy=227&dur=249&hovh=196&hovw=257&tx=149&ty=139&sig=107554401991660360812&page=1&tbnh=146&tbnw=196&start=0&ndsp=9&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:113
  • it is the reenactment of the Mayan myth of the Hero Twins.
  • the game was a combination of basketball, volleyball and soccer.
  • two teams of two to eleven player would play in the game.
  • the ball is six inches in diameter and made out of rubber.
  • have to keep ball in motion using your hips, thighs, and forearms. use of hands and feet weren’t allowed.
  • when a player successfully got the ball through the hoop, the spectators will have to give him clothing and jewelry.
Ballcourts
  • Ballcourts were public spaces used for a variety of elite cultural events and ritual activities like musical performances and festivals, and of course, the ballgame.
  • The ball court itself was of a capital “I” shape.
  • In Classic Maya, the ballgame was called pitz
  • The action of play was ti pitziil.


ART AND ACHITECTURE

  • Quiche Maya Popol Vuh recounts how the early men and women lived in perpetual darkness and prayed to the creator gods Huracan and Gumumatz to provide a sun to give them light to make their world safe and warm.
  • GIFT OF FIRE:Maya needs a fire which was given by Tohil. It was for winter time and before around to keep warm.
  • A DARK PAET:Maya groups clamored to Tohil to renew fire and he agreed to supply the golden flame on condition at future date
  • MAYA FOREBONDING:The books of Chilam Balam, an unsettling mix of prophecy, mythology and history keep members of the Yucatec Maya-also appeared to prophecy

EDUCATION

  • Either catholic or public school, mayan are educated.
  • In Guatemala there are catholics who run a boarding school to those wants to learn beyond basic education.
  • Formal education that are available concerned most of the mayans because they might lose touch to their culture.

LOCATION

  • The modern Maya live in southeastern Mexico and northern Central America, including Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador.


Great Doctors

http://listverse.com/2009/09/21/top-10-fascinating-facts-about-the-mayans/
  • Health and medicine among the ancient Maya was a complex blend of mind, body, religion, ritual, and science.
  • Medicine was practiced only by a select few who were given an excellent education.
  • called as Shamans
  • act as the medium between the physical and spirit world.

Saunas
http://listverse.com/2009/09/21/top-10-fascinating-facts-about-the-mayans/
  • an important purification element to ancient Maya.
  • constructed with stone walls and ceilings,with a small opening on top of the ceiling.
  • Water poured onto the hot rocks in the room created steam, offering a setting in which to sweat out impurities.
  • Maya kings made a habit out of visiting the sweat baths as well because it left them feeling refreshed and, as they believed, cleaner.


Values and Customs
The Maya believed in a cyclical nature of time. The rituals and ceremonies were very closely associated with hundreds (possibly thousands) of celestial/terrestrial cycles which they observed and inscribed as separate calendars (all of infinite duration). The Maya shaman had the job of interpreting these cycles and giving a prophetic outlook on the future or past based on the number relations of all their calendars. If the interpretations of the shamans spelled bad times to come, sacrifices would be performed to change the moods of the gods.

They believed that the universe has three major planes; the underworld, the sky, and the earth. The Maya Underworld is reached through caves and ball courts. It was thought to be ruled by the aged Maya gods of death and decay. It was not considered a place of torture like the Christian hell. The Sun and Itzamna, both aged gods, ruled the Maya idea of the sky. The night sky was considered a window showing all supernatural doings. The Maya configured constellations of gods and places, saw the telling of stories in their seasonal movements, and believed that the connection of all possible worlds was in the night sky.


http://www.solarnavigator.net/history/maya.htm


Clothing
Female Clothing
The huipil is piece of clothing worn as a top by Mayan women since ancient times. it is a square or rectangular piece of cloth with a hole in the center. it is generally inflated around the neck, in the shape of a cross. The piece of clothing is then folded in half and stitched up at the sides. The stitching stops on the sides to allow for armholes. The huipil is worn over a skirt which is attached with a woven belt.
In the cooler mountainous areas, such as Chiapas, women wear a tzute. This rectangular cloth can be thrown across the shoulder for decoration, or secured around the as a shawl. During festivals, it is worn as a cape. in warmer months, it is used as a sun hat. women sometimes wear jewelry such as necklaces, rings, and earrings.
Male Clothing
For political and economic reasons, the costume of Maya men has changed more over the centuries. Although Maya women commonly wear the traditional huipil, Maya men have adopted more Spanish and modern influenced dress. Some traditional styles have been adapted to modern times.
Single men generally wear bright colored clothes than married men. In some cases, they wear a less decorated huipil over shirt. The shirts are decorated differently than woman's huipil. Men's belts are woven on a blue or red background, and sometimes decorated. The ends are fringed or have pompons.

Wider belts called mecapal are used to carry heavy loads. This cloth or leather strip has ends which are joined together by cord. The cord is used to secure the bundle and the strip is placed on the forehead.
Men also wear tzute, decorated with embroidery and worn over the shoulder. Men also wear hats, especially for ceremonial events, which vary by region. Some are straw hats decorated by ribbons or pompons. Men do not wear jewelry, but they carry a bag called a morral.
http://www.mayanculture.com/clothing.html
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female Huipil Tzute

https://www.google.ca/search?tbm=isch&hl=en&source=hp&biw=1280&bih=709&q=huipil&gbv=2&oq=huipil&aq=f&aqi=g10&aql=&gs_l=img.3..0l10.11561.154364.0.156299.9.7.1.1.1.0.219.812.4j2j1.7.0...0.0.CatziVcXKjc#hl=en&gbv=2&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=tzute&oq=tzute&aq=f&aqi=g1g-m1g-S1&aql=&gs_l=img.3..0j0i5j0i24.393469.397121.0.399256.10.8.0.0.0.0.371.989.0j5j0j1.8.0...0.0.ZFFFI19AHrk&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.,cf.osb&fp=38d442504ff3662f&biw=1280&bih=709

Language
  • The Mayan script is logosyllabic combining about 550 logograms (which represent whole words) and 150 syllabograms (which represent syllables). There were also about 100 glyphs representing place names and the names of gods. About 300 glyphs were commonly used.
  • Examples of the script have been found carved in stone and written on bark, wood, jade, ceramics, and a few manuscripts in Mexico, Guatemala and northern Belize.
  • Many syllables can be represented by more than one glyph
  • The script was usually written in paired vertical columns reading from left to right and top to bottom in a zigzag pattern.

The Mayan syllabary

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Numerals
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http://www.omniglot.com/writing/mayan.htm


Chilombo, Dianne, Rizza