Ancient India


•Harrapans was named after the city of Harappa. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were important centers of the Indus valley civilization.
•Harrapan culture grew around 4000-1000 B.C.


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Location and Environment

•The place had fertile grounds. The Indus Valley contained resources like:
-Fresh water and timber.
-Materials such as gold, silver, semi-precious stones.
-Marine resources.
•The main crops are wheat, barley, peas, melons, and sesame.
This civilazation is the first one to use cotton for making clothes.
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Clothes and Fashion

The Indian people mostly wore cotton as India was the first place where cotton grew. The women wore a very long piece of of cloth called sari, that they used to wrap themselves in different ways. Younger women wore colorful ones while widows and other women wore white ones. Indian women who could afford it generally wore a lot ofjewelry, especially earrings and nose-rings. Sometimes they also put a spot of red on their foreheads called a bindi as a decoration. The men also wore a single piece of clothing called dhoti, which is white. Dhotis doesn’t usually cover the chest part. Men also often wore long cotton cloths wrapped around their heads as turbans.
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Religious
•Harrapan believe in Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.
• They also worship a goddess that symbolisms fertility that people today still use.
•They didn’t have burial sites or any religious buildings.
•Started cremating their dead people

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Writing System

•They had around 400-600 symbols that were found on artifacts.
•They write things for economic transactions and religious ceremonies
•They used pictographic script

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Science and Technology

•They accomplished great accurate in measuring in length, mass, and time.
•They were one of the first civilizations to develop a system of weights and measures.
•They developed new technique in metal work and produced tin, cooper, lead and bronze.
•They built docks after study tides, waves, and currents.
They are one of the first people to practice dentistry


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Art

•They sculptures, pottery and make jewellery.
•They do craft working. They use shells, ceramics, and beads to make necklaces and other jewellery.
•They have Terracotta female figurines.

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Cool Facts
  1. The ancient Indus Civilization script.
  2. Many questions about the Indus people who created this highly complex culture remain unanswered
  3. The game of chess was invented in India.
  4. The birth of Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus happened in India.
  5. The Decimal and Place Value system originated and developed in India.
  6. The art of Yoga that is now popular worldwide originated in India only and was performed by highly revered sages, in the ancient times.
  7. Two major religions, Buddhism and Jainism were established in India in 500 and 600 BC.
  8. Anesthesia was used in ancient India and one finds detailed knowledge of the human anatomy and its functions
  9. Surgery existed in India even 2600 years ago, when Sushruta, known as the Father of Surgery, conducted many complex surgeries. The valuable ancient scriptures have detailed information on Cataract, Artificial Limbs, Cesareans, Fractures, Urinary Stone Surgery, Plastic Surgery and Brain Surgeries.


Food

•Harappan people ate mainly rice, wheat and occasionally meat from cows, pigs, sheep, goats and chickens.
•They had soups and made flatbreads called chapatis.
•They ate sugar canes which naturally grew in India.
•Early Indians ate food that they can get easily from nature.
•They like spicy foods.



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Gods/Goddesses

In the early phase, they worshipped powers of nature since they didn’t know what they were or how to explain them. (ei: sun, moon, rain and thunder)
They believed that nature was a woman and regarded her a Mother Nature.
They started worshipping gods/goddesses because of Hinduism and interracial marriages.
During one period they had 3000 gods and goddesses to worship.

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Sources

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/india/clothing/http://thenagain.info/webchron/India/Harappa.htmlhttp://www.iloveindia.com/history/ancient-india/facts.htmlhttp://en.wkipedia.org/wiki/Indus_Valley_Civilization#Sciencehttp://www.historyforkids.org/learn/india/food/
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Claire and Breanna's Ancient Civilation: India


Civilizations
- Complex civilization developed early in India.

-Modern humans are known to have inhabited the Indian subcontinent for some 30,000 years.
-The Indian civilization was amongst the oldest in the world.
-They came a few centuries after Mesopotamia and Egypt.
-Earliest India developed around fertile floodplains, (Indus River)
-Two major cities around the river were Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
-They were one of the first civilizations to start a city hall and become productive cities.
-They were about 400 miles apart.
-Civilizations suddenly disappeared with almost no trace around 1750BC.
-Theory is they disappeared from climate change or flooding.

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Language
-Harappans have been literate from finding picto-graphs on seals and pottery fragments. (Seals are flat rock like things they in carved information and pictures on).
-Their language has never been determined, but we assume they recorded information on things such as palm tree leaves.
-They had about 400-600 symbols that were found on artefacts.

Arts
-They were an “advanced” society.
-The earliest expression comes from Mohenjo-Daro.
-It includes flat rocks impressed with diverse animals like the unicorn bull.
-They had pots.
-Sculptures.
-Finely crafted jewellery from metals and stones traded with other cultures.
-Had things like gold, silver, and semi-precious stones.

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Agriculture & Living
-They had “sophisticated” water and sewage systems and large buildings to store grain.
-They farmed intensively.
-Barley and wheat for food.
-Cotton for clothing.
-Had cattle, sheep, goats, and pig.
-Domesticated dogs, camels, and elephants.

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Trade:
  • They traded with Akkad and Mesopotamia
  • They traded metals such as copper , in return they got tin
  • Tin and copper when mixed made bronze
  • They also imported precious stones that were from the present day Afghanistan

Houses:
  • They were built out of mud bricks
  • They had a single door way, only windows that faced in towards the courtyard, and the windows provided privacy and kept the house cool.
  • There was also a washroom, a well that provided fresh water and a bathing platform.

Religious Beliefs
-They believed Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism.
-There appears to be no temples or other sacred buildings within their city.
-Large bath houses and public sanitation places were revealed in Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
-They may have hinted the ritual of cleansing/purification, known as Hinduism.

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Clothing:
  • They wore cotton
  • They grew their own clothing
  • Women wore a long piece of cloth called a “ Sari”
  • Rich women wore silk ones but most people wore cotton.
  • The Sari could be used as a dress, skirt, or on their heads as a veil
  • Working women wore there’s as pants
  • Women Wore white ones and young children wore colourful ones
  • Men wore a long piece of cloth called a “dhoti”
  • Men used them as pants
  • People who could afford jewellery would wear a nose ring or earrings.

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Sources
http://www.indianartcircle.com/arteducation/page_2.shtml
Atlas of World History
The Illustrated History of the World
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/india/clothing/
http://www.zaagtandverband.nl/