The people of Ancient Hebrew civilizations, for the most part were very religious. For example, we as Catholics refer to Jesus Christ as ‘God’ but during ancient times as a Jewish Hebrew and sometimes even now, God was not referred to as God, neither orally or written. God was/is referred to as G-d to avoid the risk of the sin of erasing or defacing the Name.


Judaism was the main religion for the Ancient Hebrew people the Jewish patriarchs were Abraham, Jacob, Moses, and Joshua.

Abraham, born Abram is viewed as "a man of faith" in the Christian religion and was used as an example of salvation by faith, as the progenitor of the Christ. Abraham was also the first Hebrew to covenant with God and Abraham is the father of monotheism. Also in Jewish tradition, Abraham is referred to as “our father”.

Jacob was born in 2000 B.C.E in Canaan and died in 1853 B.C.E in Egypt. Jacob was the grandson of Abraham and Sarah and he was the son of Isaac. Jacob experiences many personal struggles both in the land and out of it. Things such as how much he hates his brother Esau, the rape of his daughter Dinah, the false image of his father-in-law Laban, the death of his favorite wife, Rachel, and his favourite son being sold (Joseph) of his son.

Moses was the Hebrew Bible and Qur’an a religious leader, lawgiver and prophet, and is commonly credited for the authorship of the Torah. Also referred to as Moshe Rabbenuin Hebrew, he is the key prophet in Judaism, and is also considered an important prophet in Christianity and Islam, as well as many other faiths.

Joshuaplays a small role in the Torah, as one of the spies for Israel and in few passages as Moses's assistant. After the death of Moses, he became the leader of the Israelite tribes. Joshua was born between 1550-2000 B.C.E and also died somewhere in that time frame.

Judaism consists of thirteen principles of faith, which were created by Jewish scholar Rabbi Moshe Ben Maimon also known as “Rambam”. The thirteen principles are:
  • o G-d exists
  • o G-d is one and unique (monotheistic idea)
  • o G-d is incorporeal
  • o G-d is eternal
  • o Prayer is to be directed to G-d alone and no other
  • o The words of prophets are true
  • o Moses’ prophecies are true and Moses was the greatest of all prophets
  • o The written Torah and the Oral Torah were given to Moses
  • o There will be no other Torah
  • o G-d knows the thoughts and deeds of men
  • o G-d will reward the good and punish the wicked
  • o The Messiah will come

  • o The dead will be resurrected

Judaism is much more focused on actions rather than beliefs. Judaism is also focused on relationships:
  • o The relationship between G-d and mankind
  • o Between G-d and the Jewish People
  • o Between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel
  • o Between human beings
Judaism, though, is not so much focused on cosmological concepts, which is unusual compared to most other religions.
Although Jews have indeed thought about the Nature of G-d, man, the universe, life and the afterlife quite a bit, there is no proper, mandated, enforced belief on these subjects, beyond the very simplistic 13 principles of Judaism.


  • o Men and Women of the Ancient Hebrew civilizations dressed differently because there were laws that prohibited men and women to exchange dress
  • o It is known that the men’s clothing was not identical to the women’s clothing but evidence suggests that the clothing was generally the same.
  • o There are many different sections of the Ancient Hebrew dress
-the Inner Garment (tunic/shirt)
-the Outer Tunic or Robe
-the Girdle
-the Outer Garment or Mantle
-the Headdress. 

  • o Tunic
-a shirt that was worn next to the skin
-was made out of leather, haircloth, wool, or linen
-unisex; a few differences between male and female tunics in style & patterns
Differences- Male tunic: came down to the knees and was done up at the waist by a girdle of leather or cloth
Female tunic: very much the same as the males but went down to their ankles

  • o Girdles

 -two different kinds
-made out of leather, linen, or sometimes silk
-girdles were used as a pouch to keep money or to fasten a man’s sword to his body
  • o The outer garment
-covered one while sleeping
-most important part of one’s wardrobe
-male and female version of the outer garment were somewhat the same but differed in style
-women wore special outwear when they were widowed
Women: Outer garments went to right above the ankles and had a hood
Men: Ended at the middle of the calf, hood optional


The Ancient Hebrew people had five main animals that were used to do every day things such as pulling wagons and plows to help farm and speed things up or things as simple as carrying people from place to place.

Camel: Ideal for the Hebrew people of the Israel area because they are able to travel long distances through any terrain without water (i.e., traveling through Israel’s deserts). Also, Camels are very large and powerful animals because of that; Camels were regularly used to carry people or their belongings when they traveled to and from farms.

Cattle: The ox was a common labor animal used to pull plows and wagons. Since Cattle were so useful for pulling things and moving things around, they were rarely killed for food.

Sheep were key components in a nomads group of animals because of how useful they were. The wool and fleece of a Sheep was used to make clothes, the milk was a part of their diet and was occasionally made into cheese, the horns of the Sheep were used to make special trumpets which were called “shofar’s”, the skin could be used to make bags for storage or clothes, or the Sheep could be, just simply, slaughtered for the meat.

Goat: The Goat was used for many of the same things, milk, cheese, leather, and meat except the horns of the Goats were made into flasks to carry olive oil which was/is a common food ingredient and medicine. Also, the Goat hair was key in building a nomads tend.

Donkey: Donkey’s were used to transport people and other objects.