The Greeks

By: Katelyn Schmidt & Brittany Maraneta

Olympics

The Greeks invented the Olympics in southern Greece to honour the Gods. Only Greek nations could participate in the games and women were not allowed to watch. The Olympics began in 700 BC.A statue being made of gold and ivory in Olympia, to honour Zeus. They held the games every 4 years at Olympia and the games as well honoured of Zeus. The games were part of the religious festival. The first day of the Olympic festivals was a day of sacrifice. On the middle day of the festival 100 oxen’s were sacrificed to God. The athletes would also pray and make sacrifices themselves.

Statue_of_Zeus_at_Olympia_(Greece).jpg


Coinage

Our coins didn’t just come the way they are, it all began with the ancient Greeks. Our coins as well as the ancient Greeks coins both have the ruler and an image of an important civic symbol, such as an animal or a building. The Greeks were into the arts, therefor the put a lot of designs, art and thought into the coins. The coins were not just a chunk of metal used to trade; it was an expression of art. It helped historically as well. The coins had showed exact replicas of important buildings and temples.

In the beginning the coins were made with just one stamp on the first side but in the sixth century the silver coins began getting images on both sides. The reverse die was what made the image on the top side of the coin and was invented first, after came the obverse die which stamped the bottom side of the coin with another image. Before the coin was actually made and was just a piece of silver with no images on it, it was called flan.

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Democracy

Democracy was created in 507 B.C. in Greece. It was one of Greece’s main contributions to the world. It is important to our world because it is still being used today. Democracy in Greece means ‘power or the people’ and is exactly what it means, the people get to vote for what they believe, it isn’t just up to the ruler to decide.

Greek philosopher Plato started oligarchy which is a government run by a few people, but given some time Cleisthenes finally invented democracy. This was a healthy idea because it helped make things fair between the people and didn’t leave out individuals. Plato didn’t think that democracy was form of government; he believed that people were too ignorant to rule themselves.

Democracy then was a full time job and involved a lot of time. Only someone with a lot leisure time would be able to develop the system of democracy. Without slavery there wouldn’t be democracy because even a somewhat poor man could afford one slave to plow his fields or work in his shop while he was debating laws in the assembly. If the rich had time to get involved with the assemblies and meetings then the law would certainly be different.


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Theatre


-Were stylized dramas with meaning behind the obvious
-Theatre came from the word “theatron” meaning “seeing place”
-Drama came from the word “dram” meaning “to do”
-Lots presenting in Athens
-It started as a religious ceremony
-Mixture of: Myth, Legends, Philosophy’s, Social Commentary, Poetry, Dance, Music, Public Participation, and Visual Splendor
-The theatre focused on the God Dionysus
-God Dionysus was the God of: fertility (main duty), wine, agriculture, sexuality
-Many people believed that the Greek theatre considered of white buildings with white scenes and white clothing’s for the theatre
-Their plays showed: Violence and daily life, social and ethical plays, war, murder, lust and betrayal.


greek.gif
http://www.richeast.org/htwm/Greeks/theatre/ACTORS.GIF

Sculpting/Picture Pots:


-Had a profound effect throughout the ages
-Greeks were famous for the their sculptures
-Decoration were scenes from mythology/everyday life
-Used many types of materials: stones, marbles, limestone’s and clay
-Mainly divided into 7 time periods: Mycenaean art, Sub-Mycenaen or Dark Age, Proto-Geometric, Archaic, Classical, Hellenistic
-Started to represent each city states’ heroes and past legends including animals and humans
-Pottery is one of the most durable materials
-Provided information about aspects of Greek life
-Made specifically to be buried in tombs and graves
-Made pots to store things like: Olive oil, wine and water
-Were used a mixture of water and clay for patterns
-Picture pots give us a clue as what life might have been 2000 years ago


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http://members.multimania.co.uk/sstrickland/greek_9.jpg

Writing:


-Started before 700 BC
-Started with Hieroglyphs and moved on to a syllabic alphabet
-Started on tablets (Stones)
-In 750 BCE they believed that the alphabet came from Phoenicia
-Greeks were prolific writers on: History, politics, philosophy and literature


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http://greece.mrdonn.org/greekalphabet.GIF




The Video clip shows the dimensions on the Greek culture, and the understanding upon how the Greek helped us today.




Greek Food
Meals
At Home:
  • Breakfast was generally barley bread dipped in wine, sometimes there was also figs or olives
  • Lunch was light and around noon.
  • Dinner was most important meal, eaten at nightfall.
  • Women and men ate separately. If not enough space for women and men to eat separately, men would eat first and women would have to wait untill after.
  • Normally ate sitting on chairs, with high rectangular tables.
  • During banquets sat on benches with low tables.
  • Loaves of bread could be used as plates, although terra cotta (Clay based unglazed ceramics) bowls were more common.
  • People would eat with their fingers.
  • Used a knife to cut meat.
  • Used spoons for soup.
  • Bread was also used as a spoon for food or napkins to wipe fingers.

Symposium:
  • Social dining
  • Has 2 parts
  • Part one eating, Part two drinking
  • Part 1
  • Wine was consumed with food.
  • Snacks were things such as chestnuts, beans, toasted wheat, and honey cakes.
  • Snacks were supposed to absorb alcohol so they could drink more.
  • Part 2
  • Started with a libation (ritual pouring of a liquid as an offering to a god or spirit)
  • Then there would be conversation and table games.
  • Guests sat on couches.
  • Banquet was reserved for men
  • Great feasts could only we afforded by the rich.
Syssitia:
  • Mandatory meals shared by social or religious groups
  • This was for men and youth

Foods
Bread
  • Main grains were wheat and barley
  • Wheat grains softened by soaking
  • Dough leaves were baked in clay oven set on legs
  • Barley easier to produce but harder to make into bread
Fruit and Vegetables
  • Cabbage, onions, lentils, sweet peas, chickpeas, broad peas, garden peas, grass peas
  • Eaten as soup, boiled or mashed
  • Fresh vegetables were expensive
  • Could be eaten as dessert
Fish and Meat
  • Consumption of meat depends on location and wealth
  • Peasants had chicken or geese
  • Wealthier landowners had goats, pigs, sheep
  • Sausage was a common food
external image greek.jpg

Key People
http://www.ancientgreece.co.uk/knowledge/explore/exp_set.html
Architecture
  • Iktinos-5th century BC
  • One of the architects of the Parthenon in Athens, also he worked on the sanctuary of Demeter at Eleusis.
Art
  • Pheidias-5th century BC
  • He is considered to be one of the greatest ancient Greek sculptors. He is well known for the giant gold and ivory statue of Athena in the Parthenon. Another one of his sculptures is, the statue of Zeus at Olympia, was one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
Drama
  • Aeschylus-525/4 - 456/5 BC
  • Aeschylus was an Athenian playwright. He was the first great tragedian. He is believed to have written 70 - 90 plays, including Persians, Seven against Thebes and Suppliants. He is believed to have died in Sicily, when an eagle dropped a tortoise on his head
History
  • Herodotus-c.484 - 425/4 BC
  • Herodotus was a great traveller and visited many lands around the Mediterranean. On his journeys he collected many stories about the events and people of the past. He also recorded information about the events of the Persian War. He collected all these stories and information together in a work called The Histories. Herodotus was the first person to research and organize information about the past in an orderly way. For this reason, he has become known as 'the father of history.
Literature
  • Aesop-6th century BC
  • Aesop is believed to be the writer of a great number of fables. All his stories have animal characters and they give us a lesson for how we can live our life. One of his most famous fables is 'The Hare and the Tortoise'. In this, the tortoise wins a race against the hare by going slowly and steadily.
Philosophy
  • Plato-428/7 - 348/7 BC
  • Plato was a Greek philosopher whose work still influences how people think about politics. His most famous works include the Symposium, Phaedo and the Republic. In the Republic he describes his ideal type of government, where only very wise men can rule.
  • In 387BC Plato founded a school at the Academy, a gymnasium in Athens. This was the first university.
Politics
  • Perikles-c.495 - 429 BC
  • Perikles was one of the most important people in Athens during the 5th century. He was elected 15 times to the post of strategos (general). He improved the system of democracy in the city. This made it easier for artists and philosophers to work in freedom. Perikles also planned a major building program for Athens. The city had been badly damaged during the Persian Wars. The buildings on the Akropolis had been left in ruins for years to remind Athenians of that time. Perikles wanted to make Athens the most beautiful and impressive city in Greece. His building program resulted in the construction of the Parthenon, and many other beautiful buildings on the Acropolis.
Science and mathematics
  • Euclid-worked around 300 BC
  • Euclid was a mathematician. He was the first person to investigate geometry (the study of shapes, lines and points). He gathered his discoveries and theories into a book called Elements. Elements were one of the first maths books to be printed. It was still used in schools many centuries later

The Justice System
http://greece.mrdonn.org/athenscourt.html
Trial
To open or begin a trial
  • You needed witnesses to start a trial. You could go to someone’s house, bring along witnesses and tell the person involved with the charges you were bringing. Then you would give them a time and date where they could defend themselves in court.
Post a written notice
  • You had to write down all the information (the person’s name, your name, the charges, and the date and location of where the trial would take place) and post it near to courthouse.
First trip to court
  • The judge would ask both sides questions, and if the judge believed there was enough evidence to have a trial, a date would be set.
Jury selection
  • Juries were paid, not very much. To be on a jury, you had to be a citizen over age 30. Juries were selected from volunteers. Some juries had up to 500 people on them. To make sure the jury wouldn’t be bribed. (Nobody could be sure of buying the silence of so many different people.) Jurors had to swear that they would be fair and would listen to both sides equally. Nobody was guilty until they were voted guilty by the jury.
Court trial
  • PROSECUTION: The prosecutor presented its side first, including all witnesses. Witnesses weren’t cross-examined.
  • DEFENSE: Once the prosecutor had their say, the defense had a chance to have their say as well.
  • JURORS VOTED. Jurors did not discuss the case, they voted. Majority ruled over all. If less than 100 jurors voted guilty, the prosecutor (the person bringing charges) had to pay all jury fees and all court costs.
  • PUNISHMENT: If a person was found guilty, there was one more step to take. Both could suggest a punishment. There were only would two punishment choices that jurors could choose. The jury votes on which punishment to accept.

Democracy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athenian_democracy
  • Juries in Athens started around 500 BCE
  • There was no public prosecutor.
  • Anybody could bring charges against another person or persons and start a trial
  • Athenian democracy developed in the Greek city-state of Athens
  • Athens is one of the first known democracies
  • The public opinion was influenced by the political satire performed by comic poets at the theatres
  • The greatest and longest lasting democratic leader was Pericles
  • Only adult male Athenian citizens who had completed their military training had the right to vote
  • The percentage of the men that actually participated in the government was about 20%
  • There were three political bodies where citizens gathered in numbers that would grow into the hundreds or thousands
  • These are: the assembly (in some cases with a group of 6000), the council of 500 and the courts (a minimum of 200 people, but went up to 6000)
  • The assembly had four main functions; it made executive pronouncements (decrees, such as deciding to go to war or granting citizenship to a foreigner); it elected some officials; it legislated; and it tried political crimes.
  • Athens had an elaborate legal system centered on full citizen rights
  • Approximately one hundred officials out of a thousand were elected
  • Each year, 500 names were drawn from all the citizens of Athens. Those 500 citizens had to serve for one year as the law makers of ancient Athens.
  • All citizens of Athens were required to vote on any new law that this body of 500 citizens created. One man, one vote, majority ruled. Women, children, and slaves were not citizens, and thus could not vote.

City States
http://www.yourdiscovery.com/greece/politics/index.shtml
  • Greek wasn’t a country but a series of city states
  • City states were self-governing
  • Male citizens had political rights
Athens:
  • Birthplace of culture
  • Powerful city state
  • Fame for beauty
Sparta:
  • Southern Greek
  • Athens arch rival
  • Feared because of military
  • Spartan boys taken age 7 and got 13 years of military training
Corinth:
  • Wealth from manufacturing and trade
  • Known as city of luxury

Greek Language
http://greece.mrdonn.org/alphabet.html
  • Greek alphabet is over 2500 years old
  • Greeks borrowed their alphabet from another culture, the Phoenicians
  • Greek alphabet was the first alphabet to include vowels
  • Greeks wrote down all their fables and myths and legends
  • They wrote letters to each other that shared their daily life
  • They wrote business contracts
  • They kept reports of meetings
  • They wrote huge epics and wonderful stories and plays
  • Scientists today have learned a great deal about the ancient Greeks from this legacy of writings
  • The first three letters are ABG
  • external image alphabet1.gif

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/greek.htm
  • Greek was written from right to left in horizontal lines
  • Greeks had two numeric systems: the Acrophonic or Attic system
  • The Acrophonic system was replaced by an alphabetic system that assigned numerical values to all the letters of the alphabet

Greek Theatre
In ancient Greece, theatre was a really big deal. Crowds of 15,000 people would gather to see a play. Theatre was so important to the ancient Greeks that prisoners would be released from jail temporarily, so they could also attend.
Every town had at least one theatre. The ancient Greeks were always bragging about the wonderful performances in their city-state. The ancient Greeks held drama competitions with winners for playwriting and performing. These competitions were not only held in their own towns, but also in competition with other towns. Theatre was a big, big deal.
Because so many people came to see the plays, the Greeks built huge outdoor theatres on hillsides, so that people could be seated in a way that let them see what was going on down in the orchestra pit - the stage area. The entire seating section was called the Theatron, which is the origin of our word "theatre".

They consisted of three main elements: the orchestra, the skene, and the audience.
Orchestra: A large circular or rectangular area at the center part of the theatre, where the play, dance, religious rites, acting used to take place.
Skene: A large rectangular building situated behind the orchestra, used as a backstage. Actors could change their costumes and masks. Earlier the skene was a tent or hut, later it became a permanent stone structure. These structures were sometimes painted to serve as backdrops.
Rising from the circle of the orchestra was the audience. The theatres were originally built on a very large scale to accommodate the large number of people on stage, as well as the large number of people in the audience, up to fourteen thousand.
Acting
The cast of a Greek play in the Dionysia was comprised of amateurs, not professionals (all male).
Ancient Greek actors had to gesture grandly so that the entire audience could see and hear the story. Most Greek theatres were cleverly constructed, so every person can hear every sound.
Costumes and Masks
The actors were so far away from the audience that without the aid of exaggerated costumes and masks.
The masks were made of linen or cork, so none have survived. Tragic masks carried mournful or pained expressions, while comic masks were smiling or leering.
The shape of the mask amplified the actor's voice, making his words easier for the audience to hear.

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Greek Education & Science
Greeks were the pioneers of science; they created the movement of the universe, and made mathematical discoveries. They believed this was a way to organize the world and the understanding of the natural world. The Greek people where considered the first scientists that thought of themselves as a natural philosophers. The earliest Greek philosophers were knows as the pre-Socratics provided answers to the questions that were found in myths, and legends.
The Greeks used scientific understanding of science as human reasons like geometry, astronomy, physics, biology, and mathematics. The best mathematic statement was Euclid (measuring the Earth) this helped the Greeks determine where the sun was, or what stage it was at. Aristototle was a Greek “god” who was traveling among the mountains of Greece; he later discovered different stars that lay across the sky!
A famous Greek Scientist, Democritus did not come up with the first theory, but he was one that proved that atoms existed and made it possible for things to change. His theory changed everything in the world of science and education. There are many more Greek Scientist that made a big impact on our society like … **//Thales of Miletus//**, **//Hippocrates of Cos//** , **//Aristotle of Stagira//**, **//Aristarchus of Samos//**, **//Archimedes of Syracuse//**, **//Eratosthenes of Cyrene//**, **//Hipparchus of Nicaea//**, **//Strabo of Amasia//**, **//Ptolemy of Alexandria//**, **//Galen of Pergamon//**.

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Greek Olympics
  • When the Olympics first entered Greece there were a series of athletic competitions held for various city- sates, this was in honour of Zeus. This sport was only for men to attend, at the time woman were not allowed to join or compete against each other. The exact record of when the Olympic is not proved, therefore the only fact that was given was the myths, and legends this indicated that it began around 776BC in Olympia in Greece. To keep the games safe they called off wars until the games were over, this meant that everyone can attend because the games were a special event in their culture.
At the time, it was said that there were only 4- all around games in the beginning….
  • Deadly game- Like boxing & wrestling
  • Bronze Discus- A circle shaped disc like object was thrown for distance
  • Chariot Racing- pulled by 4 horses, and hurtled down the track
The ancient Olympics were rather different from modern Games. There were only a few events because free men who spoke Greek could complete the course of the games, as long as they met the entrance criteria, athletes from any county or city- state were allowed to participate. During the time of the ancient Games their origins were attributed to the gods, and competing legends were responsible for the Games genesis.
Greece was home of the Ancient Olympic Games, it was a natural choice that was held every four years in Southern Greece. Since then the Olympic has been a big impact on our nation today. Over the past century, the Greek Olympic expanded the games and now it is a world wide occurrence. The Greek Olympics changed the way we think of sports, and how it can become a big impact on your society.

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Music of Greece
The Greek culture developed the understanding of music; they formed a major part in the Ancient Greek theatre. This occurred by Eastern Europe, and Byzantine. Music played an important role for the development of theories, and how the Greek gods felt upon there ways of live. Some musical instruments include the double-reed audio and the plucked string system. In the Greek society, music was an important factor because it helped with education, and developed a young age for boys to start. Greek music was a basis for western religious and classical music.
In the 9th century, there were 2 types of ‘songs’ being played; this included the Aritic and Klephtic songs. Both songs had different meanings and values, and expressed feeling in a modern way.
Artitic Song- This is a modern music era that described struggles, and problems that occurred within the society on Greece.
Klephtic songs- This was a song played for weddings, and love stories. It had a more calm, and peaceful rhythm built into it. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w-xk5vZw1YE

Greek Dance
Greek dance is very traditional, and focuses on different styles. Each civilization formed its own choreography and style to fit in with their own way of life, there are 400 traditional Greek dances that range from all cultures and religions throughout Greece. The Greek dances brought everyone together, and it was always an important occasion in the Greek culture.
There were many forms of dances that included many steps, and routines to suit its stability.
  • Tsakonikos
  • Ballos
  • Kalamatinos
  • Hasapiko
Greek dance helped us improve on our understanding of cultures in today’s society. Dancing is still common sport that relates to many factors, it can help people with a lot of problems as they get out of there frustrations and dance as a culture.

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Greek Story’s / Myths
Greek stories and myths have had a big impact on our civilization for many years. Every Greek story has a moral, and reason behind it. Greek mythology is the body of myths and the legends belonging to the Greek gods; the myths recognize many important theories of there lifestyle. Usually, Greek myths are apart of gods and there forgetful challenges. There are many myths and legends that taught people many things from trusting other people, to simple obeying what come ahead. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Mythology/

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Greek Democracy
Democracy was a big thing in the Greek civilization, during the 3rd century BC the political center of gravity in Greece shifted from individual’s city- states to leagues. These were confederations that handled the military from the member cities. Their stability was democratic with city’s that had weight roughly to its size and power. This meant that the cities themselves were largely represented in the wealthy states.
Greek played a big demand on democracy; it still plays a major role in our society today. Democracy changed everything from the way people lived to the population in a city- state. After the Greeks started democracy people probable started to respect each other and the area around them.

Greek Architecture
Most temple designs were based on a series of vertical columns with a horizontal beam across them. The columns included Doric, Ionic, Apolic, and Corinthian. For example the Doric style was very popular because it was a simple design and easy to carve. The Ionic style was more elegant to the Greek society than the Doric. Corinthian columns was a more oriented style decorated with an elegant leafy pattern, they weren’t used as often because it was very difficult for sculptors to carve.
Temples were the most important building to the ancient Greek civilization. Greek structures were usually created with marble, because it is strong enough to last for a long time, and it was easy for sculptors to created works of art. The Greek architecture helped our understanding upon buildings, and structures today. Without the source of Greek Architecture our world who never been the same, people would be scrambling to find a place to live.
The Usborne Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece Page 76

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Greek Technology
INVENTION
YEAR CREATED
Crane
515 BC
Plumbing
5th c. BC
Spiral Staircase
480-470 BC
Crossbow
5th c. BC
Wheelbarrow
5th c. BC
Showers
4th c. BC
Lighthouse
3rd c. BC
Waterwheel
3rd c. BC
Alarm Clock
3rd c. BC
Odometer
3rd c. BC
Water Mill
250 BC
Air and Water Pumps
2nd c. BC
Fire Hose
1st c. BC
Vending Machine
1st c. BC
Automatic Doors
1st c. AD
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_technology


Key Events of Greek History
Battle of Thermopylae Pass
Being one of history’s most famous battles, (so famous in fact, that the movie 300 was based on the events of this heroic battle) the battle of Thermopylae occurred during the beginning of the Greco/Persian war, when the Persian king Xerxes the Great invaded Greece circa 500 B.C.E. Thermopylae was a very narrow pass that the Persians required to cross in order to reach the heartland of Greece, and therefor Xerxes marched an estimated one to three hundred thousand Persian soldiers to Thermopylae in order to breach the pass. During this time, the great Greek city of Sparta was unable to march its entire army to Thermopylae, as Greek religious festivities were taking place that heavily restricted military action at the time; however, the Ephors (powerful Greeks that shared power with the king of the Greek city-state Sparta, who was at this time Leonidas 1) decided that this was sufficient reason to send king Leonidas 1 and three hundred of his personal bodyguards to block the pass. During the trek to Thermopylae, hundreds other soldiers from the surrounding countryside joined the Spartans for an accumulated force of around seven thousand men assembled to combat the Persian army at the pass.

During the first day of the battle of Thermopylae, Xerxes first launched a barrage of arrows on the opposing Greek force, but this attack had no effect on the heavy bronze shields of the Greeks. Xerxes then sends ten thousand infantry troops to attack the Greek phalanx formation, which utilizes the large shields and spears of the Greeks in an overlapping pattern. The Greek formation massacred the Persian soldiers, with casualties in the Spartan ranks estimated at only under half a dozen Spartans; this threw Xerxes into a rage, causing him to send another ten thousand of his best soldiers at the Greek formation. But even Xerxes’ best soldiers where annihilated by the Greek force, as they were supposedly caught off guard by the Greeks feigning retreat.

The battle raged on for another day, during which Xerxes sends an additional ten thousand soldiers at the Spartans, figuring they were wounded and tired from the first day, but once again this was to no avail. Later in the day though, a local man named Ephialtes - whose name has come to synonymous with ‘traitor’ in the modern Greek language – told Xerxes of a mountain path that leads behind the Greek soldiers. Utilizing the knowledge Ephialtes gave him, Xerxes then sends several thousand men along the path in order to catch the Greeks by surprise during the next assault. What happened next cannot be said for certain, but it is speculated that once Leonidas 1 became aware of the Persians outflanking his formation, he decided that in order to save the remaining Greek soldiers he would stay and defend the pass with the remainder of his Spartans (as well as roughly a thousand Thebans and Thesbians). Eventually, the remaining Greek forces escaped safely and the Persians overran the Greeks that stayed at the pass after Leonidas was brought down by Persian archers who outflanked the Spartans. The Battle of Thermopylae was instrumental in delaying the Persian army and also greatly wounded Xerxes’ forces, with estimates that for every Greek soldier that died at Thermopylae, five to twenty Persians were killed. Over the next couple decades, the Greeks managed to overcome the Persian invasion and win the war, thanks to the heroic efforts of Leonidas 1 at Thermopylae.

Information gathered from: www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Battle_of_Thermopylae
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Thermopylae
www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Battle_of_Thermopylae



Architecture
Styles of Pillars
  • Doric- Most known to be used by the Spartans 4-5 meters in height
  • Ionic- More slim and 8-9 meter in height instead of 4-5
  • Corinthian- was not used very often compared to Doric and Ionic

Buildings
Three most popular
  • Theater- use as a meeting place
  • Stadiums- Where athletics were held
  • Palaces (Temples) -were the most known to Minoan Cret culture
Science
  • Science was very important to the Greeks
  • Made significant contributions to science
  • Aristotle and Hippocrates were two Ancient Greeks who made large contribution to Greek study on science

Art
Popular styles of Painting
  • Wall painting-The tradition of wall painting goes back to at least the Bronze Age
  • Panel Painting-were individual mobile paintings on wooden boards
  • Sculpturing- were painted with lots of bright colors
Technology
Thing they invented
  • Gears
  • Screw
  • Rotary Mills
  • Screw Press
  • Bronze Casting Techniques
  • Water Clock
  • Water Organ
  • Torsion Catapult
Facts about their Technology
  • Used steam to operate many of their inventions
  • Most of their inventions were invented in Late Greek period
  • Mostly inspired by needing to improve weapons

Information courteys of:
http://library.thinkquest.org/10098/greek.htm
http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Art


Food
At Home:

- The Greeks had four main meals a day
- Breakfast consisted of bread dipped in wine also can be complemented with figs or olives (ἀκρατισμός akratismos)
- A quick lunch was taken at noon or early afternoon (ἄριστον ariston)
- Dinner was the most important meal of the day, it was generally taken at nightfall (δεῖπνον deipnon)
- Shares characteristics with the cuisine of Italy
- use of olive oil, vegetables and herbs, grains and bread, wine, fish, and various meats, including poultry, rabbit and pork.
- Use fingers to eat
- used knife to cut meat
- used spoons for soup
- Bread was also used for a spoon or to wipe your fingers
- Bread could also be used as plates but (Clay based unglazed ceramics) bowls were used more often.
- Men and women separately and if there is not enough room to the men will always eat first
- Sat on benches with low tables

The symposium (συμπόσιον symposion) or (Banquet)

- Gathering of drinkers
- Social dining
- Two parts of dining
- Part one is eating and the second part is drinking
- Part one consist of wine drinking with the food and snacks were things such as chestnuts, beans, toasted wheat, and honey cakes. The snacks were supposed to absorb alcohol so they could drink more.
- Part two was started with a ritual pouring of a liquid as an offering to the god or spirit (Libation)
- then the would be games and social conversation
- A banquet was served to the men
- Great feast was only for the rich

Gourmet

Fish and Meat
- Meats depend on wealth
- lower class had chicken and geese
- high class ate sheep, goats, and pigs
- Sausage was also very common

Fruits and Vegetables
- common items of food were cabbage, onions, lentils, sweet peas, chickpeas, broad peas, garden peas, and grass peas
- Fresh fruits and vegetables were expensive
- fruit was also eaten as dessert
- Eaten as soup, boiled or mashed

Grain
- Main grains were wheat and barley
- Dough leaves were baked in clay ovens
- Wheat was soaked to get softened
- Barley was harder to produce but better bread





Location and Environment
- Greece is located in the southeast end of Europe
- Greece was not a easy place to live in
- The soil is not very good for growing things
- Lots of Mountains and Valleys
- Never enough fresh water
- Greece had lots of beaches
- Greece has a very scenic landscape
- Many islands surrounding Greece
- Greece is in the middle of a very volcanic zone
- There are several active volcano's and earthquakes are common
- Capital city of Greece is Athens






Key People


Alexander the Great was born in 356 BC, in Pella Macedonia. Alexander’s father was Philip Macedon who was an excellent Army General. Alexander’s mother was Olympias, the princess of Epirus. Alexander was living like his father and was one of the greatest military geniuses of all time. After his father died Alexander began to rule Macedon. Alexander took over the Achaemenid Persian Empire and extended his boundaries of empires. He took many foreigners into his army and kept going with military campaigning, Now Greek settlement and cultural influences are seen all over the world. Sadly at 33 years of age Alexander died on June 11, 323 BC, in the Nebuchadrezzar II palace of Babylon. Some people think he died from being poisoned by the sons of Antipater and others believe the cause of Alexander’s death was malaria.



Aristotle, born in 384 BC in Stagirus, Northern Greece. His mother’s name was Phaestis, and his father was a doctor named Nicomachus. Nicomachus passed away when Aristotle was only ten and Phaestis passed away when Aristotle was still young too. After they passed away Proxenus, which is thought to be his uncle, started to look after him and be his guardian, he also the man who started teaching him about Greece, Poetry, and rhetoric. He then became a student at Plato’s academy, after being a student and finishing his education he turned into a teacher and taught there for twenty years.

Aristotle left Athens and traveled to Assos with Xenocrates of Chalcedon. Assos is where he married Pythias, and she gave birth to the daughter who they also named Pythias. Ten years into their marriage Pythias ( the wife) passed away.

Aristotle was a chief of a group of philosophers in Assos, they observed on zoology and biology, this was a skill that was passed on from his father. During the Persian attacking Aristotle went to Macedonia, Macedonia was ruled by his friend King Philip. It was in Macedonia where Aristotle taught King Philip’s son Alexander who in fact became Alexander The Great. Aristotle then lost the Plato Academies election to Xenocrates and King Philip didn’t have any interest in Aristotle anymore, he returned to Stagirus and remarried Herpyillis who had a son with him with the name of Mytilene

Aristotle then took over for King Philip after he died, he founded a school called Lyceum, he taught there for 12 years after he founded it. He then passed away in Chalcis in Euboea where his mother had been born, He was 62 years old passing away in 323 BC, in his will he wished to be buried beside his wife.