Religion

Their religion was based off the gods…

The Egyption Gods

Ra - Sun God, King of the Gods

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A falcon crowned with a sun disk or a man with a falcon's head

Ra was the God of the Sun. He sailed across the heavens in a boat called the 'Barque of Millions of Years'. At the end of each day Ra was thought to die and sailed on his night voyage through the Underworld, leaving the Moon to light the world above. The boat would sail through the twelve doors, representing the twelve hours of night-time. The next dawn, he was born again.

It was not always smooth sailing. During the day Ra had to fight his chief enemy, a snake called Apep. He was helped by the other gods, such as Seth and Bastet.

The sun disk on Ra's head often has a cobra round it. A cobra appears on the forehead of Pharaohs, like Tutankhamun.

Ra was the greatest of the gods and he kept his power in his secret name, which only he knew. He had started to grow old, and sometimes he dribbled. Isis collected some of his saliva and made it into a snake. She hid the snake where Ra would walk. When Ra trod on it, it bit him, and Ra screamed in pain. All the gods gathered round, but none could heal him. Isis said "If you tell me your secret name, this will give me enough magic power to heal you." Ra didn't want to do this, but eventually the pain was so bad that he had to. Isis healed him, and ever since then she has the magic powers that Ra had.

Hathor - the Goddess of love, music, dance- cow horns and sundisk on head

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Sekhmet - the Goddess of the sun- woman with lion's head head * hathor and sekhmet are the same god/person

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Hathor was the goddess of joy, motherhood, and love. She looked after all women. She was the goddess of music and dancing, as well. Dead women were identified with Hathor, as men were identified with Osiris. She has a sun disk on her head and cow horns. Sometimes she had cow's ears or was a whole cow.

But she had another side as well, as Sekhmet, the Eye of Ra, the destructive Sun Goddess. The Egyptians knew that the Sun brought life, but they also knew that the desert Sun could kill you.

Ra, the Sun God, was angry with mankind, because they laughed at him. He said that he'd send down his anger as Sekhmet, the Eye of Ra. She went down to Earth, killing men, and drinking their blood. She started to frighten Ra, who only wanted to punish Mankind, not destroy them all. So he dyed some beer red, to look like blood. When Sekhmet saw the beer, she was thristy for blood, so she drank it all, got drunk and went to sleep. When she woke up, Ra persuaded her to stop killing Mankind.

Nut and Geb

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Parents of Osiris and Seth


Nut - the Sky God

dess - blue with golden stars
Geb - the Earth God - colour of plants and fertile Nile mud
The sky is Nut's body, arching from horizon to horizon. Geb is the Earth, lying beneath her. During the day, Nut and Geb are separated, but each evening Nut comes down to meet Geb and this causes darkness. If storms came during the day, it was believed that Nut had come closer to the earth.

Nut was married to the King of the Gods, Ra, but she was in love with Geb. When Ra found out, he was angry and said that Nut could not give birth to any children during the 360 days of the year. Nut was unhappy and asked the God of Wisdom, Thoth, to help. At this time, the Moon was as bright as the Sun. Thoth got some light from the Moon, so now the Moon gets bigger and smaller each month. With this light, Thoth made five new days, so now the year is 365 days long. Nut gave birth to her five children, on these five days. When Osiris, the oldest, was born, a loud voice said "The lord of all the earth is born." Seth, his brother, was born hating Osiris.

Osiris

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Husband of Isis and Father of Horus


Osiris - God of the Dead - dressed in white with crook and flail and white crown
Osiris is shown as a man with a beard wearing white mummy wrappings. His crown is the white crown of Upper Egypt surrounded by red feathers. His skin is green to represent vegetation. He holds the symbols of supreme power, the flail and crook. The crook is used by shepherds to catch their sheep. The flail is used in threshing, to separate the grains from the outer husks. Osiris was the God of the Dead. You would expect that such a god would be gloomy or even evil, but the Egyptians thought about death a lot. They mummified their dead and buried them with their belongings so they could enjoy themselves in the afterlife.

This story begins with Nut and Geb. Osiris ruled over the Egyptians and taught them farming. His brother Seth had always hated him, and wanted to kill him. Seth made a beautiful box, like a coffin, made to the exact measurements of Osiris. Then Seth invited Osiris and other people to a great feast. When everyone had finished eating, Seth displayed the box, and said that he'd give it to anyone who fitted inside. Everyone tried, but only Osiris fitted. While he was still inside, Seth and his friends quickly slammed on the lid and threw the box in the Nile river.

Seth

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Brother of Osiris


Seth - God of the desert, storm and violence - animal head with long curved pointed snout

Seth (or Set) is shown with an animal's head with a long curved pointed snout, slanting eyes, and square-tipped ears. Sometimes he has a forked tail. No-one seems to know what the animal is. Aardvark, antelope, ass, camel, fennec, giraffe, greyhound, jackal, jerboa, long-snouted mouse, okapi, oryx and pig have all been suggested! Seth was the God of the desert, storm and violence, which are all enemies of the fertile, properous, narrow valley of the Nile.

Seth carries a sceptre, which has his head on top and his tail at the other end. Several other gods seem to carry this sceptre as well.

Seth was not always bad. He helped Ra fight the snake Apep.

This story begins with Nut and Geb. Seth had killed Osiris by tricking him into a coffin, which he threw into the Nile. When Osiris' wife Isis heard about this, she started searching desperately for her husband's body, to bury it properly. She asked everyone she met and finally some children told her where it was. Isis mourned for her dead husband. Then she hid the body, while she went back to look after her son Horus, still a baby. Seth was terrified that Isis might be able to bring Osiris back from the dead, since she was a great magician. So Seth found where she had hidden the body and cut it into pieces, which he scattered up and down the Nile. Now Isis had to find all the scattered pieces of Osiris. Whenever she found a piece, she buried it there and built a shrine. This means that there are lots of places in Egypt where Osiris was buried! Osiris himself became the King of the Dead, and all Egyptians hoped they would join him after death.
Horus
Son of Isis and Osiris

Horus - Son of Osiris

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A hawk, or a man with a hawk's head crowned with the crown of all Egypt

Horus is shown as a hawk, or a man with a hawk's head and the crown of all Egypt. This makes him look similar to Ra, but Ra is crowned with the sun disk. Horus' crown is made of two parts. The white part is the crown of Upper Egypt (in the south) and the red part is the crown of Lower Egypt (including the Nile delta). Together they show that Horus ruled all Egypt. During their reign, Pharoahs identified themselves with Horus. After they died, they became Osiris.

This story begins with Nut and Geb. When Horus was a baby, his father Osiris was killed by Seth. Horus and his mother Isis hid in the papyrus reeds in the delta of the Nile until Horus grew up. The he went to war with Seth to get his father's crown and kingdom. The battles raged for a long time. Once Seth managed to blind Horus by taking out his eye and tearing it to bits, but Thoth, the God of Wisdom, managed to heal the eye. So how did the war end? See Isis's page.

The Eye of Horus, healed by Thoth, was an amulet, or magic charm. The Ancient Egyptians also used it to describe fractions. The Egyptians sometimes had had two eye symbols, with the left eye being the Eye of Horus, symbolising the moon, and the right eye being symbolising the Eye of Ra, or the sun.

Isis

Wife of Osiris and Mother of Horus

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Isis - Queen of Goddess - With a throne or sun disk and horns on her head.


Isis was the great mother-goddess. Her son was Horus, the enemy of Seth. Sometimes she has the baby Horus on her lap. Sometimes she has a throne on her head, as she is Queen of the goddesses. Sometimes she has a sun disk and horns, like Hathor.

Isis was also a great healer and magician. She got her magic powers by tricking Ra.

This story begins with Nut and Geb. The war between Horus and his enemy Seth had lasted a long time. Isis decided to help her son Horus. She met Seth, and asked for his help. She described someone killing a man and taking all he had away from the man's son. Seth said that killer should pay for his crimes. Isis said that Seth himself was the killer, and he had condemned himself. The other gods agreed, and Seth was driven out into the Sahara Desert. The story ends this way.

Thoth

Husband of Ma'at

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Thoth - God of Wisdom, Time, Writing and the Moon - head of an ibis

Thoth invented hieroglyphs, the picture writing of Ancient Egypt. He was the measurer of the earth and the counter of the stars, the keeper and recorder of all knowledge. The ibis is a bird rather like a stork, with long legs and a long beak which it uses for prodding in the mud to find small fish. It was a symbol of wisdom and learning because it has a beak shaped like a pen which it dips in the mud, as if it was ink.

The Book of Thoth had two spells in it. If you read the first spell aloud, you would be able to understand every beast and bird, and summon the fishes in the sea. If you read the second spell, you could bring the dead to life. Prince Setna, the son of a Pharaoh, knew the book was hidden in a royal tomb in the City of the Dead. With his brother Anhurerau, he broke into the tomb of Neferkeptah. When they found the burial chamber, they saw the mummy of Neferkaptah, and his wife and young son. The wife spoke to them, and warned them against taking the book of Thoth. She said that her husband had stolen the Book from Thoth, and had read the spells, but Thoth was angry and had drowned her and her son in the Nile, and Neferkeptah had then killed himself. But Setna ignored her and moved towards the Book. The mummy of Neferkaptah sat up and said "Play me at four games of draughts. If you win, you can take the Book." Setna was terrified, but agreed. He played the first game, and lost. He started to sink into the ground, up to his ankles. Then he lost the next game, and sunk up to his hips. As he was losing the third game, he shouted to his brother, "Run and fetch my magic amulets. Only they can save me!" He then sank into the ground up to his chin. His brother ran out of the tomb. Setna played the fourth game as slowly as he could, trying desperately not to lose, but the mummy was too good at draughts. Just as he had nearly lost for the final time, his brother Anhurerau returned with the amulets, and put them on Setna's head. The spell was broken, and Setna grabbed the Book of Thoth, and ran as hard as he could out of the tomb.

As Setna tried to read the Book, he saw a beautiful woman walking past. He fell in love with her, and tried to persuade her to marry him. She demanded that he kill his existing wife and children. Completely besotted with her, he agreed. When he had done this, she vanished, and he was appalled at what he had done. But he discovered that it was all a dream. He realised that he was being punished for stealing the Book of Thoth, and next time it might not be a dream, so he returned the Book to the tomb of Neferkeptah and resealed the burial chamber. Ever since then, no-one has seen the Book of Thoth.

The magic amulet may have been a scarab. The scarab or dung beetle makes a ball of dung by rolling it along the ground, and then lays its eggs in it. The Ancient Egyptians imagined a scarab rolling the sun across the sky.

Anubis

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Anubis - God of Embalming - head of jackal

Anubis invented embalming to embalm Osiris, the first mummy. He was the guide of the dead. The Egyptians embalmed their dead, especially their pharaohs, to preserve them, since they thought that this helped them live for ever.

The Ancient Egyptians believed that when you died, you travelled to the Hall of the Dead. There Anubis weighed your heart against the feather of Ma'at. Ma'at, the goddess of justice sits on top of the scales to make sure that the weighing is carried out properly. You can see Anubis steadying the scales to make the weighing fair. If your heart was lighter than the feather, you lived for ever. We still talk of "a heart as light as a feather" to mean care-free, and "heavy-hearted" to mean sad. If your heart was heavier than the feather then it was eaten by the demon Ammit, the Destroyer. Ammit had the head of a crocodile, the shoulders of a lion and the rump of a hippopotamus. These were all frightening animals for the Egyptians. Thoth, god of wisom and writing, stands by to record what happens.

Ma'at

Wife of Thoth

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Ma'at - Goddess of Justice - ostrich feather in her hair

Ma'at was the goddess of truth, justice and harmony. She was the wife of Thoth, the god of wisdom, since you need wisdom to find truth and justice. Both Ma'at and Thoth helped at the Weighing of the Heart.
The feather of Ma'at was an ostrich plume. She wore it on her head. The chief judge in charge of the Egyptian law courts was known as the "priest of Ma'at". He began court hearings by wearing the feather of Ma'at. The judge gave the feather to the person who won his case in the law courts.
The pharaoh had to promise that he would follow Ma'at. This means that he would be a just pharaoh, and keep order in Egypt.

Amun

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Amun - God of Creation - crowned with ostrich feathers

Amun was an important god, but there are no stories about him. He created all things. At the same time, he remained apart from creation, totally different from it, and fully independent from it. In fact, he was invisible, so you couldn't have a picture of him! However, if you called him Amun-Re, this allowed people to see him. Then he had a hat with ostrich feathers on, and like all gods with human heads, a beard. Re is another way of spelling Ra, the sun god.


Tutankhamun's name contains the name of Amun. It also contains the Ankh, which means Life. His name means "Long life to Amun."
The ankh was a very important amulet or magic charm.

Amun is sometimes spelled Ammon. The fossil ammonites are called after him, because his sacred animal is a ram, and ammonites are shaped like ram's horns.

Bastet

Daugter of Ra

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Bastet - Proctectress of Cats
cat or head of a cat

Bastet was sometimes called bast. She was the goddess of cats. She is a cat, or has the head of a cat, but originally she had the head of a lion.

Every day the sun god Ra would travel in his ship across the sky. Every night the snake Apep tried to stop the sun god's ship on his journey through the underworld. Ra was usually won these battles. However, on stormy days, or during an eclipse, the Egyptians believed that Apep had been victorious and swallowed the sun. Bastet defended her father Ra against the snake.

Bastet was the proctress of cats. The Ancient Egyptians had a great respect for cats since they protected the grain from mice and rats. Rats can also cause disease. Killing a cat was punishable by death. When a cat died, the family mourned it, shaving their eyebrows to mark their sadness. Cats were sometimes mummified, like people, and their mummies have been found.

Food & Drinks

The poor people mostly ate the following:
-Bread
-Beer
-Vegetables
-Fish
The rich people ate the following:
-Dates
-Pomegranetes
-Figs
-Meat(Beef/Goose)
-Grape Wine
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Clothing

- Made of linen
- Men wore lion cloths, kilts, and shirts.
- Women wore shawls, narrow ankle lenght dresses, and reed or leather sandals.
- children wore no clothes, all but one side lock of hair was shaved off.
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The Pyramids
Pyramids represent a remarkable feat of engineering.
Building pyramids was a great task. Each individual block weighed to 2 to 15 tons. Usuall the blocks were granite for "Aswan" or limestone from "Tura". Stone masons would shape and smooth the blocks. The pyramids were constructed with wooden, stone, and metal tools.
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The first pyramids were thought to be built around 2650 B.C. and the last pyramids were thought to be built around 1600 B.C.



The page was done by Rylan Frederick Jensen & Michael Daniel Kashuba
Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt was one of the earliest civilizations.
Government
Government and Religion were attached together in Ancient Egypt. The Pharaoh was the head leader and the almighty representative of the gods on earth. The Pharaoh started ruling Egypt at 3000 BC, when upper and lower Egypt were united. During the old kingdom, they considered themselves to be living gods, with a great and high power. They built their own pyramid as a testimony to their greatness but no record of things they have done. The Pharaoh’s represented themselves in writing and sculpture reliefs on temple walls to reinforce their image as powerful divine rulers.

The ancient Egyptians remained very aware of social layers and barriers were between the classed were very stiff. Climbing the social ladder was very difficult, but it could come through outstanding accomplishments in professions such as scribes and military. Scribes are a person who writes documents by their hands and helps the city keep track of their records. The government structure of ancient Egypt involved other officials. Including viziers, army commanders, chief treasurers, the minister of public works and tax collectors, all who answered directly to the Pharaoh.

Taxation remained under the government of Egypt, through mostly in the way of goods and labour. Citizens were sent into the military when characterized or into forced labour to pay labour tax, depending on what needed to be done at the time. In early times, the kings often controlled all the resources and only gave them to those able to pay taxes and remain loyal to their leaders, despite being absolute. When it comes to laws, many of them involved punishments to fit crimes. In a religious country, tight and wrong were most likely clearly assigned, and doing ‘wrong’ was not just an accustomed bad idea, but it bought disgrace on one’s entire family. Punishments for wrong doing were as caning of as severe as various killing.
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Writing


The language of Egypt was one of the earliest languages to be written down. The Egyptians first used hieroglyphs which means sacred carvings particularly for message carvings or painted on temple walls. Two of the newer forms which are called hieratic and demotic. Hieratic was used for legislative and business purposes, as well as for literary, scientific and religious texts. Demotic was a general in use for the daily requirements of the society.

Word and names written in hieroglyphs were believed to have magical powers. For this reason, funeral text and the names of the people of who pass away were written on coffins and tomb walls. This means that the gods would near prayers and the individuals would be taken care of harms. If the tomb was ruined, and the persons’ identity was lost, this means to continue living in the after world.
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Clothing
Ancient Egyptians were very aware of cleanliness and personal appearances. Both men and women wore jewellery. One of the famous jewellery most Egyptians used, the amulet, was believed the owners and give them strength. When it comes to hairstyles, the hair was bashed and scented and sometimes lightened with henna by Egyptian hair dressers. Both men and women wore hair pieces, but wigs are very common ones. Priests shave their heads to affirm their devotion to the deities and to reinforce their cleanliness, a sign of purification, Egyptians used mineral pigments to produce make-ups.
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Food
The main food crops, barley and emmer, were used to make beer and bread, the main staples of the Egyptian diet. Grains were harvested and kept in granaries until ready to be processed the qualities harvested each season for exceeded for the need of the country. So much was exported to neighbouring countries, providing rich source of income for the Egyptian treasury. A big variety of vegetables were grown, including onions, garlic, leeks, beans, lentils, peas, radishes, and more. There were also fruits like dates, pomegranates, and more for sweetening desserts. The Egyptian diet was added by fish, fowl, and meat, although peasants were probably enjoyed meat on special occasion. No utensils were used for Egyptian eating. Hunting and Fishing was also known in Egypt for gathering foods. Rabbits, deers, bulls and antelops and more were among the wild animals hunted for their meat and skins.
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Game:
http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/kids/games-quizzes/egypt-mummys/
Sources:
http://www.civilisations.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/egypt/egcl06e.shtml
http://www.ancientegypt.co.uk/menu.html
By: Geraldine Ilagan
Sarah Lee

Religious Beliefs:
Acient Egyptians were very religious people. Their religion was mainly based on the worship of deities except during the time Akenaton was Pharaoh. Egyptians believed in deities because it was part of their tradition, they never doubted that which was handed down to them threw generations. In fact they believed that the Pharaoh wasn't just a leader but a god. Their government and religion was very intertwined, due to this it would be logical that priests and holy men be very high ranked. This wasn't always a good thing, when ever there was a major conflict the priests and Pharaohs would be the ones to blame. There were many gods and goddess in the ancient Egypt, actually there were over 2000 gods and goddess! There was a god to explain almost anything they couldn't explain. Most of the time the deities were part human and also part animal like the god Anubis the god of the dead and embalming, he had the body of a man but the head of a jackal. of course there were gods who didn't have human parts.There are several creation myths which developed in various locations in Egypt. One of these creation stories was the Heliopolitan creation myth developed in Heliopolis. In this creation story Atum willed himself into existence. then he willed Shu, the god of air and Tefnut, the god of moisture to creation. Those two gods eventually gave birth to Geb, the earth god, and Nut, the sky god. Then over time they had a family tree and each member of the family explained something how something happens or is created. This is how they believed everything came to be.

Death, After Life and Burial:
The ancient Egyptians believed the death was a gate way to a better life. They believed they could only reach holiness and purity after they had passed on to the next world.When someone has died in ancient Egypt they would mummify them and have burial rituals to make their journey to "eternal life" a safe path. They had mummified people because they believed that they had to preserve their bodies so they could use them in the afterlife. Usually people paid a fortune to have their bodies properly preserved. The rich people were buried in tombs and the poor were buried in the sand whilst. Their families would put all their worldly possessions in their tombs so that they can be used in the afterlife. This is why there is so many tomb raiders,most of the items that are buried with the dead are gold and jewels. When mummifed the only organ that is left is the heart because they believed that unlike what we believe the believed the heart is the cause of intelligence and emotion not the brain. The priest would wear a mask of a jackal. He would wear this to symbolize he is asking for the blessing of Anubis the god of the dead.

links to more info on mummification and Egyptian gods: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oPD3yJEPwXQ ,
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pBF7NlvMWaA

Steps To Mummification:
1. The body is washed and purified.
2. Organs were removed. Only the heart remained.
3. The body is filled with stuffing.
4. The body is dried by covering it with something called natron which substance absorbed all the moisture from the body.
5. After 40 - 50 days the stuffing was removed and replaced with linen or sawdust.
6. The body was wrapped in strands of linen and covered in a sheet called a shroud.
7. The body was placed in a stone coffin called a sarcophagus.
games :http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/ED/mummy.html

Religious beliefs and death, After life and Burial By: Abel O'mikael

where info came from :
http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/religion.htm
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Homework/egypt/mummies.htm
http://historylink101.net/egypt_1/religion_creation_myths.htm

Owen ,Tayloor, Dayne

Clothing for men:The Egyptians had to survive the scorching hot summers, and the ice cold winters. In the winter the Egyptians wore linen, wool, heavy ani1mal skins, and feathers. In the summers they wore silk, cotton, feathers, and light animal skins. Also they wore kilts. For headdress men would where wigs, but royalty would where crowns. The men mostly did not use shoes, most of the time they would go barefoot, but on special occasions they would where sandals. That was the clothing for men in ancient Egypt.

Clothing for women:The Egyptian woman had to wear the same clothing in order to survive the seasons, except for a few different types that separate the men’s clothing from the woman’s. Women wore dresses and sandals made of reeds. Most women wore amulets around there necks. Also, the women would where kohl on their eyelids. That was the clothing for





Buildings of Ancient Egypt


Ancient Egyptians are often considered the first builders known to man by historians.


Houses in Egypt consisted of bricks made out of mud as well as chopped straw. The bricks were molded using molds which were then placed into the sun to bake the bricks. Richer homes where whitewashed with a mixture of lime and water and included double layered brick walls. The richer homes also had painted walls. The walls were usually painted yellow or blue with a border of lotus petals or ducks. Good building lumber was uncommon in the Egypt area causing most boards used for construction purposes to be imported.


The average Egyptian home consisted of four rooms, while the poor people’s homes consisted of one room and the rich homes had around ten rooms. The four rooms included a central room, an entry room, a kitchen and a storage room. The central room was the largest and was in the center of the house, the additional rooms were smaller and we all connected to the central room and were often lower than the central room to allow for holes in the roof for air flow. The central room was also used as a bedroom at night in which the family slept. A Nobleman’s house consisted of more rooms surrounding the central room and had nicer furniture. A Nobleman’s home also had a mud tile or plaster covered floor. Most Egyptian houses also used the roofs as living space due to a lack of light inside the house. Many modern day Egyptians still use their roofs as living space.


Many of the pyramids of ancient Egypt were built using multiple materials and different types of stone. The core of the pyramid usually consisted of low end, rough limestone. The outer layers then built out of fine white limestone as well as inner exposed walls surrounding rooms and passages.


The ancient Egyptians are known for the towering columns thy built in their temples and other important structures. The columns consist of intricate sculpting and painting. Some of the pillars contain statues placed on the front giving the illusion of guards. Most Egyptian columns are located on the fronts of temples as well as in the main halls.


Information courtesy of:
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/building.htm


Ancient Egyptians Stories

The ancient Egyptians believed that it was important to record and communicate information about religion and government. They invented written scripts that could be used to record this information.
The most famous of all ancient Egyptian scripts is hieroglyphic. However, throughout three thousand years of ancient Egyptian civilization, at least three other
__scripts__ were used for different purposes. Using these scripts, __scribes__ were able to preserve the beliefs, history and ideas of ancient Egypt in temple and tomb walls and on __papyrus__ scrolls.




Clothing and fashion-
Due to the hot climate in Egypt, they used very light clothing, that were made from linen and wool. Often there were traces of silk found in Egyptian tombs during the second half of the second millennium BCE. Priests and pharaohs wore animal skin, in a role of god. The clothing in Ancient Egypt was mostly made by women. Linen was the most important piece of clothing, and was made from flax, and when people die they make a request to wear linen. The clothing was very simple, A kilt for men, and a dress for the women with straps. Very little sewing was done, and the clothing was held in place by a belt. The clothing had a variety of colours. It wasn’t popular to wear footwear, often wealthier people wore footwear. For women, the wig was the most important accessory.
external image royal.jpg
http://www.egyptartsite.com/fashion.html


  1. King Tut (Tutankhamen)

· This ruler came to the throne when on 9 years old. He was obviously guided by his officials, but seems to have been determined to bring back the gods who had been banished by Akhenaten.
  1. Armless Queen

· This statue of an Egyptian queen is from around 700 B.C. Her arms were attached separately but have been lost, as her crown of plumes.
  1. Hatshepsut-

· This determined woman ruled Egypt for about 20 years. She was supposed to be regent for her young stepson. But took over the reins of government. She wore the Pharaoh's crown and royal ceremonial beard in this sculpture she wears the crown of Upper Egypt, which bears the cobra goddess.
  1. Nefertiti/Akhenaten-

· In Akhenaten’s reign the traditional Egyptian gods were banished- onlu the sun gods were worshiped. To break the links with other gods, Akhenaten founded a new capital city and closed the temples for other gods. Queen Nefertiti helped her husband step up the cult of the sun gods Aten and probably rules with him. After their death Tutankhamen and his successors restored the old gods. The names of Akhenaten and Nefertiti became hated and were removed from inscriptions and their temples were torn down.

KEY PEOPLE!
key people in ancient Egypt are usually the Pharaohs, they are the highest in the Egyptian social pyramid. it goes..
  1. Pharaohs
  2. Visers
  3. High priests & Nobles
  4. Priests, engineers, Doctors

http://historicalroots.wikispaces.com/



Where is Egypt?
Location:

Egypt lies in the north corner of Africa. It is surrounded by the seas of the Mediterranean in the North and the Red Sea in the East. Libya in the west and Sudan in the south. Also Egypt’s capital, Cairo is located in the northern part of Egypt.
Climate:

Egypt has an arid dessert climate, meaning it is hot during the day and cool during the night. In the coastal part of the country the average temperature is a minimum 14 degrees minimum to 35 degrees maximum in the summer. In the dessert parts of Egypt the temperature can be a minimum of 7 degrees to 64 degrees in one day.
Egypt is divided into four main divisions:

The Nile Valley and Delta
The Western Desert
The Eastern Desert
Sinai Peninsula


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egypt

• Art and Architecture


The Egyptians were very famous for their work with pottery, painting, sculpture and architecture. A lot of their paintings were discovered from tombs of kings or queens.
Pyramids
Pyramids played a great role in the Egyptians life, their kings, queen and precious works of art. Pyramids were built by using stone and copper tools to carve the blocks than the blocks were transported to the area where they were building the pyramid. How the blocks were raised is not known for sure but scientists believe that they used ramps, because ramps have been found at several sites of pyramids.

-Most of the Ancient Egyptian Art was found in pyramids very well preserved by the people that put it there. The paintings were very high stylized and symbolic. Here are some examples:
external image z110582.jpg












Egyptians Music and Dance
MUSIC: Egyptian’s loved there society but the most active thing to do was Dancing to music. Egyptians music was founded every were in temples, houses, streets, buildings and at ceremonies. Their music was mostly performed with metal or wooden objects to create a good sound and then they would add other sounds as well. Music was mostly performed by men who worked well together to create amazing sounds and beats which others really liked. When they would perform it would mostly just be them sitting down banging spoons or sticks on pots pans or on metal objects, but then they started making it more creative like adding cups plates and even class to make better sounds. Dance-Dancing in Egypt was really big, after they started making sounds with metal objects they started to create a beat which many found interesting. That’s when people such as women became belly dancers, were younger women in the 20’s-30’s that would dance while the man played a fast or slow beat. People loved dancing, sometimes they would gather around a fire and some elders would the play the nice music or beats and men andwomen would get up and dance. Most of the time dances were performed to a king special celebrations and other times it was a great way for people in the society to bond.

BY: Joanne and Morgan
Language and Communication
The Egyptian language is the second longest history next to Sumerian. Hieroglyphic writing started in 3000 BC and involves hundreds of different symbols. Hieroglyphs were seen as a formal kind of writing and were most often used on monuments and tombs. Hieratic script was what they used in day-to-day writing. It was quicker and easier to use and was always written from left to right while hieroglyphs could be written from left to right or up and down.


hieratic+hieroglyphs.gif
Art and Architecture
Domestic dwellings of wealthy and ordinary Egyptians were made from mud, bricks, or wood. Ordinary Egyptians lived in simple homes while wealthy Egyptians lived in more elaborate buildings. Pyramids were built with stone mastabas stacked on top of each other. Egyptians followed a strict set of principles that were developed during the Old Kingdom that resisted outside influences on their art. These principles included simple lines, flat areas of color, and flat projection of figures with no depth.
ancientegyptart.jpg
Key People
  • King Tutankhamun

    Ruled for 10 years and died when he was 18 in 1323 BC. Had two stillborn daughters. Married his half-sister Ankhesenepatan who changed her name to Ankhesenamun. He had a broken leg shortly before his death which became infected. Malaria was also present in his body and these two together could have led to his death. Another theory is that he was assassinated. Due to the extreme amount of incest King Tutankhamun had many genetic defects and rare diseases.
  • Cleopatra VII

    Last Pharaoh of Egypt, she first ruled with her father and later with her brothers. One of which she married as per Egyptian custom. She formed an alliance with Julius Ceasar to secure her grip on the throne. She had a son with Ceasar who then became a co-ruler with her. Cleopatra had twins with Mark Antony, married him and then had another son with him. Later the ruler of Rome invaded Egypt and defeated it. Mark Antony committed suicide and Cleopatra did as well not wanting to be captured and brought into Rome as a sign of triumph.